Many Linux users usually need to repeat the same command over and over again. For the newbie she will often re-write the whole command. The average use might already know that there’s something called a bash history and so she would use the up and down arrows to navigate through the history. It will take a while to find the needed command.
The more advanced user would know the trick I am about to tell you to find the appropriate command in less than 3 seconds. Continue reading
$ lsusb #list USB devices
$ lspci #list all PCI devi
$ startx #initialize an X session
$ more #filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. (less gives more advanced).
$ less #opposite of more; allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement.
$ stty #change and print terminal line settings
$ stty size # prints terminal size
$ locate #find files by name (for newbies I suggest the gui catfish -requires installation)
$ find #search for files in a directory hierarchy
$ ls #list directory contents
$ cd #change directory
$ pwd #print name of current/working directory
$ cp #copy files and directories
$ rm #remove files or directories
$ rmdir #remove empty directories
$ file foo.format #extracts info about file and what software it was written with; helpful in the case of having forgot which software was used to produce such a file
$ df #report file system disk space usage
#e.g; df or df /home
$ man #interface to the on-line reference manuals
$ free #Display amount of free and used memory in the system
#e.g; free -mt (m for MB & t for totals line)
$ uptime #tell how long the system has been running.
$ finger #user information lookup program
$ w #show who is logged on and what they are doing.
$ whoami #print effective userid
$ cat /proc/meminfo #memory info
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo #cpu info
$ lsb_release -a #print (a: all ) distribution-specific information
$ last -x | grep shutdown #show listing of last 10 logged in users; you can pipe this to the tail to read the last n instances.
#e.g; for 10 instances: last -x | grep shutdown | tail -n 10
$ last -x | grep reboot #show listing of last logged in users
$ sudo shutdown -P hh:mm #shutdown & poweroff (-P) @ hh:mm
$ ps #report a snapshot of the current processes.
$ top #display Linux tasks
$ htop #interactive process viewer based on top
$ watch #execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen
#e.g; watch -n 5 free -m
$ powertop #program to analyze power consumption on Intel-based laptops
$ kill pid #send a signal to a process
$ killall proc #kill processes by name
$ pidof program #find the process ID of a running program
Some useful terminal shortcuts
Ctrl+C #halt the current command
Ctrl+Z #pause command
$ fg #resume paused command in foreground bg resume paused command in background
Ctrl+D #logout of current session (similar to exit)