Converting Greenhouse Gases to Rocks

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One of the ways scientists are attempting to reduce greenhouse gases is to inject these gases into the ground. Specifically, they are testing injecting them, into basalt which is type of igneous rocks usually forming the first (rock) layer (sandwiched between the sedimentary & gabbro layers) in the oceanic crust basalt and in volcanic regions.

The above video features Iceland and its geothermal plants. Iceland is a heaven for geothermal energy as it lies along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) (i.e. where Mid-Atlantic ocean floor is spreading apart in opposite directions forming a ridge). Most notably Iceland lies along the V-Shaped Reykjavik ridge (figure below; Google maps) which is part of the Norther MAR.

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Animation of the Italy Earthquake’s Seismic Velocity

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A “real-time” animation of the seismic (vertical) velocity of Italy’s 5.5 Mw earthquake that hit between the Aquila and Rieti provinces. The second half of the animation shows the whole country and surrounding area.

Real-time indicates that the video reflects how the waves propagated in real-time. It’s neither slowed down not sped up.

Red color indicates relatively higher vertical velocities indicating the ground is moving upwards while the blue color indicates the lower (negative) velocities indicated a downward movement of the ground. Color intensity refers to the magnitude.

Sound of the Moving Earth

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What do you think an earthquake would sound like if you could hear it?

Here’s a sample (opens in a new tab).

The audio was generate by processing seismic data.

More samples are available on from the source where you can also find the corresponding spectrograms, (i.e. the representation of the frequency content of the signal and how it varies in time).

via Zhigang Peng @ Georgia Institute of Technology

Credit: Peng, Z., C. Aiken*, D. Kilb, D. Shelly, B. Enescu (2012), Listening to the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake, Seismol. Res. Lett., 83(2), 287-293, doi: 10.1785/gssrl.83.2.287. , and Kilb, D., Z. Peng, D. Simpson, A. Michael and M. Fisher* (2012), Listen, watch, learn: SeisSound video products, Seismol. Res. Lett., 83(2), 281-286, doi: 10.1785/gssrl.83.2.281.

As a follow-up here’s a nice video from USGS

Surprises at the Mariana backarc

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The Mariana backarc, the same location of the deepest point on Earth, is where the thermal vents occur due to the spreading of two plates. In other words, the spreading apart of the sea floor results in a trench like the Mariana trench. At such backarcs, and the similar but not the same Mid-Ocean Ridges, “black smokers” form.

The following video is a fly-thru movie at the Mariana backarc in search for HydroThermal vents (second video).

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Lab simulation of Strike-slip fault deformation using glass beads

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via Strike-slip deformation with erosion and cross sections – The Field – AGU Blogosphere

Original post @ The Geo Models

Deepest part of the Ocean

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The deepest part in Earth’s oceanic crust is the Mariana Trench which is a located in the western Pacific ocean east of the Mariana islands near the Philippines and Japan. The trench is the location where two tectonic plates meet (converge), the pacific and Philippines plates. The Challenger Deep is its deepest point to which four descents have been made to. Its reaches a reaches a depth of about 11 km.

marianatrenchmap

Location of Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench in the western pacific ocean.

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Reading a Seismogram, a Funny & Illustrated Guide

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