Converting Greenhouse Gases to Rocks

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One of the ways scientists are attempting to reduce greenhouse gases is to inject these gases into the ground. Specifically, they are testing injecting them, into basalt which is type of igneous rocks usually forming the first (rock) layer (sandwiched between the sedimentary & gabbro layers) in the oceanic crust basalt and in volcanic regions.

The above video features Iceland and its geothermal plants. Iceland is a heaven for geothermal energy as it lies along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) (i.e. where Mid-Atlantic ocean floor is spreading apart in opposite directions forming a ridge). Most notably Iceland lies along the V-Shaped Reykjavik ridge (figure below; Google maps) which is part of the Norther MAR.

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Radio interference around & Salinity in the Mediterranean

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When ESA’s SMOS satellite was placed in orbit in 2009, it transpired that its signal was being interrupted by numerous illegal transmitters around the world. However, by working with national frequency protection authorities, 75% of these transmitters have now been shut down. Nevertheless, this is a laborious process and some regions, such as the Libyan coast and the eastern Mediterranean Sea, remain contaminated where mitigation strategies have not yet been successful. Source: ESA

Thanks to new processing techniques, information from ESA’s SMOS mission can be used to map salinity in the surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea. For example, daily maps can be created using DINEOF, which reduces noise and other sources of contamination. The image, which captures salinity on 3 March 2013, shows the fresher water from the Atlantic Ocean flowing through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. Source: ESA

Educational Visualization Tool for Global Seismic Seismology

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Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, IRIS, provides an educational visualization tool to aid in teaching about global seismology. Specifically it simulates how P-waves and S-waves travel from the epicenter on the surface of the Earth as well as through Earth’s interior.

It also provides annotations of each travelling ray as it reflects or refracts through the different layers along with their corresponding seismograms. Check it out here (opens in a new tab).

If you are a student, teacher, or just interested I invite you to check out the various learning and teaching resources available from IRIS.

Surprises at the Mariana backarc

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The Mariana backarc, the same location of the deepest point on Earth, is where the thermal vents occur due to the spreading of two plates. In other words, the spreading apart of the sea floor results in a trench like the Mariana trench. At such backarcs, and the similar but not the same Mid-Ocean Ridges, “black smokers” form.

The following video is a fly-thru movie at the Mariana backarc in search for HydroThermal vents (second video).

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Drilling Through Ice

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Two things drive us: pursuit of happiness and curiosity.

via Great Big Story

How Earthquakes and Volcanoes Reveal the Beating Heart of the Planet

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How Earthquakes and Volcanoes Reveal the Beating Heart of the Planet, via Smithsonian Magazine – Journey to the Center of Earth

breathingearth

OCO-2 scientists @ JPL find patterns in Carbon Dioxide concentrations

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On October 29, 2015 JPL announced that scientists have found patterns in the carbon dioxide concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere. What is most interesting is tha

“…OCO-2 scientists are now beginning to study the net sources of carbon dioxide as well as their “sinks””

 

Another interesting video is this supercomputer model of CO2 levels in Earth’s atmosphere for a whole year (2006):

Full story @ JPL: Excitement Grows as NASA Carbon Sleuth Begins Year Two

Orbiting Carbon Observatory – 2 mission page